Characteristics of the Image

  • Extremely Superficial—penetrates only top two micro-fibers!
  • No paint, ink, dye, stain, chemicals, vapors, or scorching!
  • No outline to the image!
  • No directionality such as brush strokes!
  • No variations in density as with known works of art!
  • Must be viewed from several feet before the image can be discerned!
  • Body and wounds are anatomically perfect!
  • Blood is from actual wounds!
  • AB positive blood, human DNA!
  • Blood was on the cloth before the image!
    (No image under the blood)
  • Signs of Rigor Mortis but not decomposition!
  • Image has properties associated with a 3D, high-definition, photographic negative!
  • Cloth has numerous pre-medieval, textile characteristics with a three-to-one herringbone weave!

Intriguing Facts

  • Obviously “the man on the cloth” was a criminal found guilty of a capital offense who was unusually both scourged (a punishment for non-capital crimes) and crucified.  Under Jewish law the body should have been buried before sundown, probably in one of the two plots specifically reserved for criminals.
  • As a criminal, this man had been buried making use of a very rare and expensive cloth of fine linen with a unique, herringbone weave—a type of cloth not manufactured during the Middle Ages.  The cloth fits the Biblical description of a high-priestly undergarment (tunic).

  • The image is of a real man—approximately 5' 11", 175 lbs., 30-35 years of age, with distinctive Jewish traits (e.g., hair in a pigtail)—who had undergone a unique crucifixion, matching the crucifixion of Jesus in the Biblical record.  In that regard, one should take note of the fact that the emperor, Constantine, outlawed crucifixion in the early fourth century.

  • Pollen found on the cloth provides forensic evidence for a Jerusalem presence and for some key locations on what was likely the historical trail the Shroud traveled before residing in Turin, Italy over the past several centuries.

  • The depiction of a Jewish burial and a Roman crucifixion found on this image is “not what any forger with medieval or modern presuppositions would have thought of; but it makes complete sense of the texts and comforts with the other ancient evidence." — John T. Robinson (New Testament Scholar)

  • The incredible, faint, full-body image of a crucified man on the cloth was not the work of an artist.
    (This was the primary conclusion reached by a team of 33 scientists who were permitted special access to examine the cloth and performed the most extensive study of the artifact.)

  • No one has been able to explain how the image could have been formed by natural causes, nor has anyone been able to fully replicate it!

  • Why, if a forgery, is the image a negative? Why would a medieval forger produce such an image when neither he nor any of his contemporaries could have seen the details?  Those details were first made visible with the work of a photographer in the year 1898.

  • How could a medieval ‘artist’ make or take a photo negative when photography was not introduced to the world until 500 years later in 1839? 

  • Either the image is “the riddle of the ages” (TIME Magazine), or it is the Father’s witness to the Gospel story and His miraculous, gracious gift to every believer and to every doubting Thomas.